Veterinarians may choose to work on pet (companion) or farm animals, horses, aquatic creatures, wildlife or still other groups of animals.
A Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry degree course prepares you for the role of diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of animals. Veterinarians will advise on care and breeding of animals. Some may engage in research and development, consultation, administration, teaching, technical writing and sale and production of commercial products.
Veterinarians contribute to human as well as animal health. A number of veterinarians work with physicians and scientists as they research better ways to prevent and treat human health problems such as cancer, AIDS, and alcohol or drug abuse.
Nature of Work
Veterinary science deals with the medical and surgical treatment of animals. Depending on the nature of appointment, veterinarians deal with small or big animals, in rural or urban settings. They may be attached to government departments, as in the Animal Husbandry Department, or they may be with dairy or poultry farms; they could be in private practice or teaching in veterinary colleges or be involved in research programmes sponsored by the government or private companies dealing with pharmaceutical products and/or livestock feed/fodder.
In general private practice veterinarians look after and treat animals at their clinics or at the farms/homes.
Veterinarians in the Animal Husbandry Departments of the state governments or the Central Government deal with the prevention and control of diseases in dairy and poultry farms run by the government and also supervise periodic innoculation and vaccination of animals on the farms and markets and to implement various schemes for the welfare of farm animals.
Veterinarians may conduct research on prevention and control of animal diseases, development of biological/pharmaceutical products, better fodder/feed for them, immunisation of animals, effects of modern nutritional inputs on animal health, animal genetics, breeding, animal pathology, etc.
Veterinary surgeons conduct post-mortems on carcasses and carry out laboratory investigations for diagnosis of diseases.
Veterinarians in private practice may decide to set up practice in a farming community or in an urban setting. In the latter case they would usually be treating pet animals while in rural settings their range of practice may extend to all animals. Large ranches, farms and stud farms may employ full-time veterinarians who would be based on-site. Zoological gardens, animal sanctuaries, bird sanctuaries also have veterinarians on their staff. Practical work of caring for animals may involve somewhat disagreeable work spheres and require physical strength.
Research and laboratory work is also common among veterinarians while some of them may go into teaching in an agricultural university Research work is carried out in laboratories mostly run by the government.
Master's degree course helps to specialise in areas such as Poultry Science; Dairy Production; Dairy Tech., Dairy Science; Animal Nutrition; Pathology; Parasitology; Microbiology; Anatomy; Physiology; Pharmacology; Veterinary Medicine; Surgery; Animal Reproduction & Gynaecology; Genetics and Animal Breeding; Meat Science & Technology; Feed and Fodder Technology, etc.
The decision to specialise is usually made on the basis of the nature of the work involved and environment in which one is interested in working.
Physical and Psychological Requirements
Aspiring veterinarians should have a basic scientific interest and curiosity in animals, their behaviour and development; love, sympathy combined with detachment, concern for animals with a total absence of nervousness in handling them; self-reliance; powers of observation; a firm hand; ability to infuse confidence in animals and their owners; adaptability; indifference to occasionally disagreeable conditions of work; ability for team work and be prepared to work anti-social hours.
For teaching: an interest in imparting knowledge; patience; ability to inspire enthusiasm; and dedication.
For research: ability to concentrate for long spells at a time; ability for team work; scientific curiosity; imagination; and a meticulous and systematic approach.
Training in veterinary science is through the Bachelor of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (BVSc. & AH ) course. BVSc/BVSc & AH is usually a 5 years course (including internship). Entry level is after successful completion of Plus Two or equivalent with Physics, Chemistry and Biology, securing at least 50 per cent marks in the aggregate.
Admission is on the basis of norms prevailing in the different states. The Veterinary Council of India [16/15 WE.A. Arya Samaj Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-110005] conducts an All India Common Entrance Examination for admission to 15% of the seats in veterinary colleges. The announcement comes in the month of December-January, January-February while the examination is usually conducted in May To be eligible to apply, candidates should have obtained not less than 50% in English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology [reserved category-40%].Candidates should have completed 17 years of age as on 31st December of the year of applying.
Further studies in veterinary science would be in the form of the Master's degree programmes — MVSc (of two-year duration) — in which various specialisations are offered: anatomy; animal nutrition; genetics and animal breeding; animal reproduction; microbiology; parasitology; pathology; pharmacology; physiology and biochemistry; surgery; poultry science; food, hygiene and veterinary public health; dairy cattle production; etc.
Minimum eligibility to join the MVSc course is the BVSc & AH qualification.
Courses in Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry are conducted in veterinary colleges located in almost all the states. Most colleges impose domicile restrictions in their admission procedure. Students resident in a particular state are considered for admission to the veterinary college/s in that state only
State and Central Government are major employers in their various veterinary hospitals/clinics; veterinary colleges, farms and dairy facilities ; zoological gardens, wildlife sanctuaries and many research facilities and in administration.
Higher qualifications allow access to better growth prospects and in specialised organisations and functions. There is good scope in the feed, fodder, dairy, poultry pharmaceutical products industry for veterinary medicine in government as well as in the commercial sector. In urban settings veterinarians can build up a good practice especially working with pet animals and organisations catering to animal welfare.
Teaching work is linked to veterinary colleges as part of the faculty Faculty members of these colleges may also be involved in research. Depending on their areas of specialisation, veterinarians, in the research laboratories, work on the causes and prevention of animal diseases, development, production and uses of biological products for the diagnosis of animal diseases, and immunisation against them, effects of modern nutritional inputs on animal health and production, animal genetics and breeding, veterinary pathology, etc.
In the private sector veterinarians find work in the R&D cells to develop pharmaceutical products for animals, better fodder and feed, etc.
Veterinarians employed by the government or the Armed Forces advance in grade and salary after accumulating time and experience on the job. For those engaged in private practice advancement usually consists of an expanding practice and consequent higher income.
Those veterinarians engaged in teaching and research move on to professorships and senior scientist positions or to an administrative position.
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, Belgravia House, 62-64 Horseferry Road, London SW1P 2AF
In the UK, most vets work in private practice, others go into research or industry The Ministry of Agriculture employs them to work on disease control, others are employed by animal welfare organisations, or in animal hospitals. Vets are also needed in food processing industries where their job is concerned with checking that conditions are humane and hygienic.
In the US, employment of veterinarians is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2008. Job openings stemming from the need to replace veterinarians who retire or otherwise leave the labour force will be almost as numerous as new jobs resulting from employment growth over the 1998-2008 period.
Most veterinarians practise in animal hospitals or clinics, many of whom care primarily for companion animals.
American Veterinary Medical Association,
1931 N.Meacham Rd., Suite 100, Schaumburg, IL 60173-4360
Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, 1101 Vermont Ave., N.W., Suite 710, Washington, DC 20005 www.avma.org
Canadian Veterinary Medical Association, 339 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON KIR 7K1, Canada E-mail: email@example.com
LIST OF UNIVERSITIES/INSTITUTIONS
Entry Level: Bachelor's degree in Veterinary Science (BVSc)/Bachelor's degree in Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry (BVSc & AH).
Duration: Usually 5 years including 1 year of compulsory internship.
Eligibility: Successful completion of Plus Two/equivalent in Science with the subjects Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
Admission is on the basis of norms prevailing in the different states.
National Level Entry Procedure:
The Veterinary Council of India conducts an All India Common Entrance Examination for admission to 15% of the seats in veterinary colleges.
Announcement comes in the month of December-January or January-February while the examination is usually conducted in May.
Eligibility: Candidates should have obtained not less than 50% in English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology [reserved category-40%].
Age: Candidates should have completed 17 years of age as on 31st December of the year of applying.
The Veterinary Council of India
16/15 W.E.A. Arya Samaj Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-110005
1. Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444104 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Jurisdiction: districts of Akola, Amravati, Buldana, Bhandara, Chandrapur, Nagpur, Wardha, Yavatmal, Gadchiroli. BVSc & AH MVSc
2. University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, Bangalore-560065 E-mail: email@example.com
Jurisdiction: 15 districts of Karnataka except area falling under the jurisdiction of
Agricultural University at Dharwad.
3. Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneshwar-751003 Telex: (0675) 6446
Statewide jurisdiction. BVSc & AH
4. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334002 E-mail: 1.rootraub.raj.nic.in
Statewide jurisdiction. BVSc & AH [entrance test] MVSc
5. Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai-600051; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Statewide jurisdiction. BVSc
6.Konkari Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415712 E-mail: email@example.com
Jurisdiction: five districts of Thane, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg and Greater Mumbai. BVSc & AH
7. University of Agricultural Sciences, Krishinagar, Dharwad-580005 Telex: (0865) 244 AGCD IN
Jurisdiction: On an area of 52% covered by 10 districts of northern part of Karnataka —
Belgaum, Bellary, Bidar, Bijapur, Dharwad, Gulbarga, Raichur, Gadag, Haveri, and Uttar
BVSc & AH
8. Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
BVSc & AH MVSc
Admission: EAMCET [Engineering, Agriculture and Medicine Engg. Common Entrance Test]
2 years MVSc
Admission: Entrance examination and BVSc with OGPA of 7 under 10 scale.
10. Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 Fax: (0581) 447284; Cable: Vetex Izatnagar
11. Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur-482004 E-mail: email@example.com
Statewide jurisdiction except the revenue districts mentioned under IGKV Raipur (14 above). BVSc & AH MVSc & AH
12. Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Shalimar Campus, Srinagar-191121/Camp Office: Railway Road, Jammu-180004
Jurisdiction: State of J & K Admissions through competitive test. BVSc & AH MVSc
13. Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Statewide jurisdiction as also entire north-east BVSc & AH
14. Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208002 Telex: 0325-430
Jurisdiction: 30 districts of UP including Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Agra, Hardoi,
BVSc and MVSc
Admissions: Entrance exam for UG courses
15. West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, 68 Kshudiram Bose Sarani, Kolkata-700037
Fax: (033) 5571986 Statewide
Jurisdiction. BVSc MVSc
16. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 E-mail: email@example.com
Jurisdiction: State of Punjab and UT of Chandigarh.
BVSc & AH
17. Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Palampur-176062 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Statewide jurisdiction. BVSc & AH
BVSc & AH
Admission through Entrance examination for all courses.
19. Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Krishi Nagar, Parbhani-431402 E-mail: email@example.com
Jurisdiction: Marathwada region comprising 7 districts of Parbhani, Aurangabad, Nanded, Beed, Osmanabad, Jalna, and Latur. BVSc & AH MVSc
20. Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Krishak Nagar, Raipur-492012 Telex: 775-332. IGKV IN
Jurisdiction: 16 revenue districts of Raipur, Bilaspur, Ambikapur, and Bastar divisions and Balaghat district of Jabalpur division of Madhya Pradesh. BVSc & AH [through entrance examination] MVSc
21. Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi-834006 (now in Jharkhand) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
BVSc and MVSc Admission: Competitive test
22. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722 E-mail: email@example.com
Jurisdiction: 9 districts of Pune, Ahmednagar, Solapur, Kolhapur, Satara, Sangli, Dhulia, Nasik, Jalgaon. BVSc & AH
23. Rajendra Agricultural University, Samastipur-848125 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Jurisdiction: State of Bihar except the districts under the jurisdiction of Birsa Agricultural
Admissions through competitive entrance test.
BVSc & AH
MVSc & AH
24. Gujarat Agricultural University, Sardar Krushinagar-385506 E-mail; email@example.com
Statewide jurisdiction. BVSc & AH
25. Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur-680654 E-mail; firstname.lastname@example.org
BVSc & AH
Wherever Master's degree courses are offered in Veterinary Science/Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, doctoral (PhD) programmes are also usually available.
Pondicherry University, R Venkataraman Nagar, Kalapet,
Fax; (0413) 655265; E-mail: email@example.com
Course: 2-year MSc (Medical Entomology)
Eligibility; BVSc/MBBS/BSc MLT or BSc with Zoology.
Listing is indicative
Interested candidates are advised, in their own interests, to pursue specific information like details of admission procedure, domiciliary restrictions, time for applications, duration of training/ internship, etc., from the concerned institutions directly or keep track of the notifications in the national/ local dailies and publications like Employment News/Rozgar Samachar.